天道首页>名师访谈>美国

中美文化差异大 留学生如何抵挡文化冲击

责任编辑:leona.luo来源:天道教育时间:2015-04-08 15:54:02点击:

众所周知中美文化有着极大差异,美国留学生想要在国外顺利融入当地社交圈,适应美国课堂学习方式,需要做哪方面的准备呢?为了帮助各位准备去美国留学的同学提前了解两国文化差异,有针对性的做好留学前准备,我们采访到了天道教育的Adam Grimm老师。

关键词: 美国留学美国留学生天道教育

Adam Grimm

  Adam recently obtained a master&aposs degree from Georgetown University&aposs School of Foreign Service.Adam has a deep understanding of international Education. During his graduate study, he focused his research on China with a specific interest in Chinese education and international education. He presented his research at the University of Pennsylvania and Washington University and was recognized as a Boren Fellow and a Critical Language Scholar by the United States National Security Agency and the US State Department. Previously, Adam was an English Lecturer at Henan University, where he designed the coursework for Advanced Academic English Writing. 乔治城大学国际关系硕士,中文非常地道。热爱中国历史文化,热衷研究汉语言文学。曾任河南郑州大学英文讲师。幽默风趣。通晓中美两国教育系统和细节,辅导学生游刃有余。

    众所周知中美文化有着极大差异,那么美国留学生想要在国外顺利融入当地社交圈,并且很快适应美国课堂学习方式,他们需要做哪方面的准备呢?为了帮助各位准备去美国留学的同学提前了解两国文化差异,有针对性的做好留学前准备,我们采访到了天道教育的Adam Grimm老师,Adam Grimm老师来自美国,曾在河南大学任教,对中美教育及文化有深入的研究。下面来看看Adam Grimm老师给我们的建议。

  问:中国学校的学习方式和美国有着极大的差异,您能描述一下您经历过的美国课堂学习方式吗?那么您认为中国学生应该如何做才能适应这种学习方式呢?

  答:It is very true that there is a major difference between American and Chinese study and teaching methods. China has a ‘teacher-centered’ instruction approach with a teacher lecturing in front of the classroom and students listening and taking notes, while the US has championed a more ‘student-centric’ approach with students actively participating in class through open and group discussions as well as individual and group projects. Chinese students prepare for class by reciting and memorizing texts, while American students, even at a young age, are led to explore ideas critically and creatively in their homework.

  美国的学习和教学方法同中国存在着很大的差异。中国有一个“以教师为中心”的教学方法,形式是老师在教室前面讲课,学生听课并且记笔记。而美国一直倡导“以学生为中心”的教学方法,形式是学生通过开放小组积极参与讨论,此外还有个人和团体项目类活动。中国学生通过背诵教材和记忆讲义来做课堂预习,而美国的学生,在很小的时候,他们的家庭作业就开始锻炼学生的批判性和创造性思维。

  I was fortunate to have some very inspiring teachers, even at my rural Ohio school. I remember in a history class, we were learning about the Ford assembly line, and Mrs. B, in order to have the students get a feeling what it was like to do the monotonous, repetitive tasks of an assembly line worker, designed a classroom activity where we each had to draw part of a stick-figure person over and over again with the task of producing 500 of them! It is one thing to read or hear about something, but it is a much more memorable experience to actually feel it.

  即使我的学校位于俄亥俄州的农村地区,我也很幸运我的老师是非常棒的。我记得在一堂历史课上,我们学习关于福特的装配线和B夫人(美国历史课内容),为了让学生感觉到一个装配线工人一直重复一项任务时非常的枯燥无味,老师设计了一个课堂活动,我们每个人都必须画一个柱状图,反复画500次!这和你听到或者读到一个故事是不同的,你真正感受到它是一个更加难忘的体验。

  In university, and especially graduate school, students are expected to take an even more active role in their own education, whether it be lab works or experiments, group discussions or individual research projects. Professors do indeed lecture, but the real learning takes part in the more personal aspects of university education. Therefore, as mentioned before, honing critical thinking skills are crucial for success in American universities. Sometimes this even means challenging your teacher’s ideas. 

  在大学,特别是研究生院,无论是在实验室或实践活动中,还是小组讨论和个人研究项目中,学生都期望在他们自己的求学经历中扮演更积极的角色。教授的演讲授课不是学习的主要部分,大学教育真正的学习部分在于个人。因此,如前所述,在美国高校学习过程中掌握批判性思维技能是至关重要的。有时,这甚至意味着挑战老师的观点。

    I remember when I was a junior in university I had a professor that wrote a book and series of articles presenting a new international relations theory and asked the class to review and critique the book for an assignment. I completely disagreed with the professor and in my paper I refuted the main premises of his argument. Although I was afraid that I might insult my professor, he was impressed that I was bold enough to disagree with him and he appreciated my well argued criticisms. (I also got an A in the class!)

    我记得当时我在大学还是一个低年级学生,有一个教授写了一本书,文章提出了一种新的国际关系理论,让学生回顾和评论。我完全不同意教授的观点,于是我在论文中驳斥了他的论点。虽然我很害怕这可能表现出我对教授的无礼,但是他反而对我大胆反对他留下了深刻的印象,他很欣赏我的辩论。(我在这堂课上的成绩得了A!)

  Chinese students may feel uncomfortable when they are faced with adapting to this new type of environment, and the thought of challenging a professor like I did might seem terrifying. American higher education demands that students extract their knowledge from creative exploration and critical examination. It is not about simply memorizing the textbook or lectures. It is about thinking for oneself. So when preparing to study in the States, Chinese students must begin to build those critical thinking skills. Get in the habit of questioning ideas, critiquing opinions, and considering alternative explanations for things.

  中国学生在面对适应新类型的环境时可能会觉得不舒服,比如挑战一个教授的思想。美国高等教育要求学生从创造性的探索和批判性的检查中获取知识。这不是简单的记忆教材或讲义,而是要求学生学会独立思考。所以准备去美国留学的中国学生必须开始学习这些批判性思维技能。平时就要养成质疑的习惯,不仅要用批判性思维看待事物,还考虑到事情的另一种解释。

  问:在国外的中国留学生无论在生活还是学习中都喜欢和中国人在一起,那么你身边的中国留学生是否普遍不能融入当地学生社交圈呢?您怎么看待这种现象?针对这种现象中国留学生在出国前应该做哪些准备?去国外留学期间应该增强和积累哪些方面的经验和能力?

  答:Studying and living in a different country can be an overwhelming experience. Everything and everyone around you is different. Culture shock can set in. In this strange environment, many international students find comfort and security by staying around things and people that are familiar, making friends with people from their same culture or country. This is particularly true of students whose culture is different from America’s. While European students may easily immerse themselves into American social life due to cultural and ethnic overlaps, the same is often not true with Chinese students, who often do everything only with other Chinese people. This was true with almost all the Chinese students with whom I came in contact at university and graduate school.

  学习和生活在不同的国家可以获得丰富的经验。你周围的一切人和事都是不同的,这时你就会体验到不同文化带来的冲击。在这个陌生的环境中,许多国际学生希望通过周围熟悉的人和事找到舒适和安全感,与来自一样的文化背景或国家的人交朋友。这与美国学生的文化是完全不同的。而欧洲的学生由于文化和民族的重叠更容易融入到美国社会生活中,有差异的往往是中国学生,他们经常只与其他中国人共处。我所接触的所有的大学和研究院的中国学生几乎都是如此。

  But, I found that this ‘self-enforced isolation’ was not always a result of a lack of desire to integrate into American social circles, but a lack of nerve or confidence. As a graduate student, I had five Chinese roommates (at different times). While they normally preferred to hangout with other Chinese students, they were often happy to join me and other Americans if they were invited. The trick is breaking the ice.

  但是,我发现这个“自我强制隔离”的现象并不是因为中国学生们不想融入美国社会,而是缺乏勇气或信心。我在不同时间有五个中国室友。虽然他们通常喜欢去找其他中国学生交流,但是只要他们被邀请,他们往往很乐意加入我和其他的美国人。关键是要打破僵局。

  So, as a Chinese student, what should you do if you want to integrate into American social life? How can you break the ice? As your preparing to go abroad, it is important to psychologically prepare yourself for an unfamiliar environment and to know that there are going to be many things that will seem foreign at first. You will need to overcome this to fully integrate into American social circles.

  所以,作为一名中国学生,如果你想融入美国社交圈,那么你应该做什么?你怎么能打破僵局?如果你准备出国,要想适应一个陌生的环境,首先重要的是做好心理准备,要知道初到国外会有很多的事情。你需要克服这些困难然后充分融入美国社交圈。

  When you get there, you must force yourself to break out of your comfort zone and jump in with both feet! The easiest and most natural way is to follow your interests. Like tennis? Join a tennis club. Interested in Politics? Go to a political interest club meeting. Like singing, dancing, swimming, video games, volunteering etc? Find others with the same interest. Many universities have over a hundred student organizations that cater to all kinds of activities and interests. Take advantage and take part. Some of my best friends to this day I met playing dodge-ball as a freshman in university!

  当你到达国外,你必须强迫自己走出你的舒适区,跳出自己的圈子!最简单和最自然的方式就是按照你的兴趣。喜欢网球?那么加入网球俱乐部吧。对政治感兴趣?那么去一个有趣的政治俱乐部。喜欢唱歌,跳舞,游泳,玩视频游戏,志愿服务等?找和你具有相同兴趣的人吧。许多大学都有超过一百个学生组织,适合各种活动和兴趣,你可以很好的利用和参与。

  Also, American students are curious about other cultures and would be excited to learn from you about Chinese life and culture. Share your experiences with them. Tell them that the Chinese food in America is garbage and take them to a real Chinese restaurant, or better yet, cook for them. You’ll have a friend for life!

  同时,美国学生对其他国家的文化充满好奇,他们会兴奋地向你学习中国的文化和生活。与他们分享你的经验,告诉他们,在美国的中餐一点都不地道,然后带他们到一个真正的中国餐馆,或者为他们做一顿正宗的中餐。这样你将会有一个一生的朋友!

    以上就是天道教育Adam Grimm老师为各位美国留学生们带来的中美文化差异分析。希望对各位准备去美国留学的同学有所帮助。更多美国留学相关问题敬请关注天道教育官方微信。或点击在线咨询。

  有数据,有故事,懂留学,更热爱梦想。

  扫一扫,留学资讯一手掌握!天道教育微信订阅号:tiandaojiaoyu

美国留学

满分考生亲授 如何在家搞定托福110+

大家都在关注

分享到:

  • 天道美本申请首席顾问方案 大牛顾问团队陪你做申请!
  • 美国研究生文科申请-首席专案
  • 天道“启明星”计划
  • 天道留学APP安卓版 重磅上线!
  • 天道研究生首席顾问申请服务 让最强阵容陪你申请!
  • 天道欧美临床医学博士申请方案 突破申请瓶颈
  • 2018ACT考试攻略
");}(document);