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英文中,怎么判断该使用大写还是小写?

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  • 来源:互联网
  • 时间:2020-09-21 16:06:16

  The basic guidelines for using capital letters in English appear simple enough:

  在英语中使用大写字母的基本准则似乎很简单:

  Capitalize the first word in a sentence.

  句子中的第一个词首字母要大写。

  Capitalize the pronoun.

  代词要大写。

  Capitalize proper nouns and most adjectives formed from proper nouns.

  专有名词和大多数由专有名词构成的形容词要大写。

  But things become tricky once we get down to the details. That's when even the most exhaustive style guides (such as the AP Stylebook and The Chicago Manual of Style) occasionally disagree.

  但一旦我们深入到细节,就会变得很难。即使是最详尽的文体指南(如AP文体手册和芝加哥文体手册)针对大写问题,偶尔也会有不同意见。

  In addition, there may be regional disagreements. As Pam Peters has observed, "British writers and editors are more inclined to use capital letters where Americans would dispense with them" (The Cambridge Guide to English Usage).

  此外,可能存在地区分歧。正如帕姆·彼得斯所观察到的,“英国作家和编辑更倾向于在美国人不使用大写字母的地方使用大写字母”(《剑桥英语使用指南》)。

  So don't regard these "rules" as the final word. If your organization has a house-style guide, stay in house. And if you run across a word or phrase not covered by these guidelines, consult a dictionary.

  所以不要把这些“规则”当作最终定论。如果你的书库里有家庭文体指南,请留在家里。如果你遇到了这些指导方针中没有涉及的单词或短语,请查阅字典。

  One final note: in these guidelines capitalize means to use upper case for the first letter of a word.

  最后一点:在这些指导方针中,大写意味着用大写字母表示单词的第一个字母。

  The First Word in a Sentence

  句子中的第一个单词

  Capitalize the first word in a sentence.

  句子中的第一个词首字母要大写。

  Your mother is in here with us, Karras. Would you like to leave a message? (Linda Blair as Regan in The Exorcist, 1973)

  你妈妈和我们在一起,卡洛斯。你想留言吗?(林达·布莱尔在《驱魔者》中饰演里根,1973年)

  Likewise, capitalize the first word of a quotation if it's a complete sentence: Jorge said, "The game is over." But don't capitalize the first word if the quotation is not a complete sentence: Jorge said that the game was "all but over" by the seventh inning.

  同样,如果引用语是一个完整的句子,请将其首字母大写:乔治说:“比赛结束了。”;但如果引用语不是一个完整的句子,请不要将其首字母大写:乔治说第七局的比赛已经“结束了”。

  Pronouns and Names of People or Characters

  人或字的代词和名称

  Capitalize the pronoun I.

  代词I要大写。

  I'm sorry, but I don't want to be an emperor. (Charlie Chaplin in The Great Dictator, 1940)

  对不起,我不想当皇帝。(查理·卓别林《大独裁者》,1940年)

  Capitalize the names and nicknames of particular persons and characters.

  特定人物以及人物的姓名和昵称要大写。

  Elvis, Ginny Weasley, my sister Vicki, Florence Nightingale, Barack Obama, the Simpson family, the Pritchetts, Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta

  埃尔维斯,金妮·韦斯莱,我妹妹维姬,佛罗伦萨·南丁格尔,巴拉克·奥巴马,辛普森一家,普里切特一家,斯蒂芬妮·乔安妮·安吉丽娜·格曼诺塔

  As a general rule, also capitalize the names of cultural movements, schools, and styles if those names are derived from proper nouns: Aristotelian, Reaganomics.

  一般来说,如果文化运动、学校和风格的名称来源于专有名词:亚里士多德语、里根语,那么这些名称也应大写。

  Titles (of People)

  (人的)头衔

  Capitalize titles that come before the names of particular persons and characters.

  特定人物和角色的名称首字母要大写。

  Mayor Augustus Maywho, Doctor Sanjay Gupta, Professor Minerva McGonagall, Lady Bracknell, Queen Elizabeth II, President Obama, Captain Jack Sparrow, Aunt Bee

  市长奥古斯塔斯.梅休,医生桑杰·古普塔,奥古斯都,米勒娃麦格教授,布莱克尼尔女士,英国女王伊丽莎白二世,总统奥巴马,杰克斯派洛船长,蜜蜂阿姨

  Although the titles of business executives aren't usually capitalized (the chairman of BP), in-house publications may choose to use capitals. In most cases, don't capitalize a title that appears after a name (Bill de Blasio, mayor of New York City) or that stands alone (a doctor, the mayor).

  尽管企业高管的头衔通常不是大写的(英国石油公司主席),但内部出版物可能会选择使用大写。在大多数情况下,不要将出现在名字后面(纽约市市长Bill de Blasio)或单独出现的名字(医生、市长)大写。

  Specific Place Names

  具体地名

  Capitalize the names of specific places (planets, countries, counties, cities, seas, streets, and so on), both real and fictional.

  将真实和虚构的特定地点(行星、国家、县、市、海、街道等)的名称大写。

  Mars, Canberra, London, Monroe County, Yorkshire, the Midwest, Canada, the Ohio River, Narnia, Rosecrans Avenue, Knighton Road, the village of Little Whinging, Chicago's South Side, the English Midlands, the Twin Cities (for Minneapolis–Saint Paul)

  马尔斯、堪培拉、伦敦、门罗县、约克郡、中西部、加拿大、俄亥俄河、纳尼亚、罗斯克兰大道、奈顿路、小惠金村、芝加哥南侧、英国中部、双城(明尼阿波利斯-圣保罗)

  Capitalize common nouns — such as road, river, and republic — only when they're part of the full name of a place. Don't capitalize these common nouns when they stand alone in follow-up references. Also, when two or more geographical names are linked in a single expression, the usual practice is to put the generic part of the names in lower case: the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. As a general rule, capitalize regions (the Eastern Shore, the Left Bank, the West End), but don't capitalize compass points (north, southeast) if they simply indicate direction or location. Don't capitalize sun and moon.

  只有当普通名词(如公路、河流和共和国)是某个地方全名的一部分时,才将其大写。当这些普通名词单独出现在后续引用中时,不要大写。此外,当两个或多个地理名称以一个表达式连接时,通常的做法是将名称的通用部分放在小写中:the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.一般情况下,区域(东岸、左岸、西端)应大写,但如果罗盘点仅指示方向或位置,则不应大写(北、东南)。不要把太阳和月亮大写。

  Nationalities, Languages, Ethnic Groups, and Religions

  国籍、语言、种族和宗教

  Capitalize the names of particular nationalities, languages, ethnic groups, and religions.

  特定国籍、语言、种族和宗教的名称要大写。

  Filipino people, African-American, a native Newfoundlander, the Welsh language, Na'vi, Judaism, Buddhism, Quantum Presbyterians

  菲律宾人、非裔美国人、纽芬兰本地人、威尔士语、纳威语、犹太教、佛教、量子长老会

  Don't capitalize the names of academic subjects (algebra, art, history) unless they are languages (English, Spanish, French) or part of a department name (Department of Languages and Literature). As a general rule, don't capitalize the names of religious services and rites (baptism, bar mitzvah).

  不要将学术科目(代数、艺术、历史)的名称大写,除非它们是语言(英语、西班牙语、法语)或部门名称(语言和文学部门)的一部分。一般来说,不要把宗教仪式和仪式(洗礼、成人礼)的名字大写。

  Deities and Holy Books

  神灵圣书

  Capitalize the names of deities and holy books.

  把神灵和圣书的名字大写。

  God, Krishna, Allah, Jehovah, the Bible

  上帝,克里希纳,真主,耶和华,圣经

  Also capitalize the names of books of the Bible: Genesis, Psalms.

  也要把圣经书的名字大写:创世纪,诗篇。

  Businesses, Schools, Organizations

  企业、学校、组织

  Capitalize the names of particular businesses, buildings, schools, and organizations.

  将特定企业、建筑物、学校和组织的名称大写。

  Google, General Motors, Westminster Abbey, Trump World Tower, Beauxbatons Academy of Magic, the Salvation Army, Oxfam International, the Girl Scouts, the League of Women Voters

  谷歌、通用汽车、威斯敏斯特教堂、特朗普世界塔、博克斯巴顿魔法学院、救世军、乐施会国际、女童子军、女性选民联盟

  Likewise, capitalize the official names of rooms and offices: the Oval Office, the Situation Room.

  同样,把房间和办公室的正式名称大写:椭圆形办公室、情景室。

  Government Agencies

  政府机构

  Capitalize the formal names of government units, agencies, and divisions.

  政府单位、机构和部门的正式名称要大写。

  White House, House of Representatives, House of Commons, Supreme Court, Department of Education, Georgia Department of Natural Resources

  白宫、众议院、下议院、最高法院、教育部、格鲁吉亚自然资源部

  Acts, Treaties, and Government Programs

  法案、条约和政府计划

  Capitalize the formal names of acts, treaties, and government programs.

  将法案、条约和政府计划的正式名称大写。

  Declaration of Independence, the Act of Union, the Marshall Plan, the Treaty of Versailles

  《独立宣言》、《联合法案》、《马歇尔计划》、《凡尔赛条约》

  Military and Police Unites

  军警联合会

  Capitalize the official titles of armies, navies, and other military and police units.

  将军队、海军和其他军警单位的官衔大写。

  Army National Guard, the Royal Australian Air Force, the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police

  陆军国民警卫队、澳大利亚皇家空军、菲律宾武装部队、加拿大皇家骑警

  Wars and Battles

  战争和战役

  Capitalize the names of wars and major battles.

  把战争和主要战役的名称大写。

  Second World War, Spanish Civil War, the Norman Conquest, the Gulf War

  第二次世界大战、西班牙内战、诺曼征服、海湾战争

  Historical Periods and Events

  历史时期和事件

  Capitalize the names of particular historical periods, events, and documents.

  特定历史时期、事件和文档的名称要大写。

  VE Day, the Great Depression, the Troubles (Northern Ireland), the Middle Ages, Magna Carta, the Treaty of Versailles

  五日,大萧条,困境(北爱尔兰),中世纪,大宪章,凡尔赛条约

  However, names of events that occurred at different times in different places are generally not capitalized: the recession, gold rush, secession movements.

  然而,在不同时间在不同地方发生的事件的名称通常不大写:衰退、淘金热、分裂运动。

  Brand Names

  品牌名称

  Capitalize legally protected brand names and trademarks.

  将受法律保护的品牌名称和商标大写。

  Xbox 360, Kit Kat, Coca Cola, Adidas, Range Rover, Kleenex, Cadbury Fingers

  微软开发的电子游戏平台、奇巧维化巧克力、可口可乐、阿迪达斯、大型越野车路虎、克里内克丝面巾纸、吉百利手指

  The obvious exceptions are trademarks that begin with a lowercase letter: eBay, iPhone, iPad. Also, don't capitalize a brand name that has been transformed into a common noun through popular usage: aspirin, thermos, escalator. (For further guidance on this last point, see generification and genericide.)

  明显的例外是以小写字母开头的商标:eBay、iPhone、iPad。另外,不要将一个通过流行用法转化为普通名词的品牌名称大写:aspirin, thermos, escalator.(有关最后一点的进一步指导,请参阅generification和genericide。)

  Months, Days, Holidays

  月份,日期,节假日

  Capitalize the names of days, months, holidays, and special days of observation.

  日期、月份、节假日和特殊观察日的名称大写。

  Wednesday, June, Christmas, Veterans Day (U.S.), Anzac Day (Australia and New Zealand), Mother's Day, Boxing Day (Britain and Canada)

  星期三、六月、圣诞节、退伍军人节(美国)、澳新军团日(澳大利亚和新西兰)、母亲节、节礼日(英国和加拿大)

  But don't capitalize the seasons: winter, spring, summer, fall (autumn).

  但季节首字母不大写:冬天、春天、夏天、秋天(秋天)。

  Book and Movie Titles

  书籍和电影标题

  Capitalize the principal words in the titles and subtitles of books, movies, plays, magazines, journals, TV shows, video games, musical compositions, and pieces of art.

  将书籍、电影、戏剧、杂志、期刊、电视节目、电子游戏、音乐作品和艺术品的标题和副标题中的主要词语大写。

  War and Peace, The Sixty-Second Motivator, Avatar, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Entertainment Weekly, Journal of Organic Chemistry, Arrested Development, Grand Theft Auto IV, Rhapsody in Blue, The Starry Night

  《战争与和平》、《第六十二个激励因素》、《阿凡达》、《仲夏夜之梦》、《娱乐周刊》、《有机化学杂志》、《被捕发展》、《侠盗猎车手四》、《蓝色狂想曲》、《星空之夜》。

  If a title contains words joined by a hyphen, both words are usually capitalized. Articles, conjunctions, and short prepositions are usually not capitalized unless they begin the title. For more specific guidelines (with examples of both sentence case and title case), see Which Words in a Title Should Be Capitalized?

  如果标题包含由连字符连接的单词,则这两个单词通常都大写。冠词、连词和短介词通常不大写,除非它们以标题开头。有关更具体的指导原则(包括句子大小写和标题大小写的示例),请参阅标题中哪些单词应大写?

  Awards

  奖项

  Capitalize the names of awards, prizes, and scholarships.

  奖励、奖品和奖学金的名称要大写。

  Rotary Youth Leadership Awards, the Nobel Prizes, the Academy Award (and the Oscar), National Merit Scholarship

  扶轮青年领袖奖、诺贝尔奖、学院奖(及奥斯卡)、国家功勋奖学金

  Acronyms

  首字母缩略词

  Capitalize each letter in an acronym or initialism.

  首字母缩写或首字母缩写中的每个字母大写。

  NATO, CNN, BBC, NAACP, TV, LA (or L.A.), FEMA, DVD, AWOL

  北约,美国有线新闻网络,英国广播公司,全国有色人种协进会,电视,洛杉矶,联邦应急管理局,数字化视频光盘,擅离职守

  For exceptions, check your favorite style guide or dictionary.

  对于例外情况,请查看您最喜欢的样式指南或字典。

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