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是什么令剑桥大学如此卓越?

责任编辑:siyang.zhang来源:互联网时间:2018-12-03 15:25:16点击:

在英国的教育史上,剑桥大学是一个绕不开的标志物,那么究竟是什么令这所学校百年不倒、屹立至今仍熠熠生辉?我们或许可以从以下材料中找到答案。

关键词: 英语学习双语阅读剑桥大学

  在英国的教育史上,剑桥大学是一个绕不开的标志物,那么究竟是什么令这所学校百年不倒、屹立至今仍熠熠生辉?我们或许可以从以下材料中找到答案。

  The University of Cambridge is one of the oldest universities in the world, and one of the largest in the United Kingdom. It has a world-wide reputation for outstanding academic achievement and the high quality of research undertaken in a wide range of science and arts subjects. The University pioneers work in the understanding of disease, the creation of new materials, advances in telecommunications and research into the origins of the universe. It trains doctors, vets, architects, engineers and teachers. At all levels about half of the students at Cambridge study arts and humanities subjects, many of whom have gone on to become prominent figures in the arts, print and broadcast media. The University's achievements in the sciences can be measured by the sixty or more Nobel Prizes awarded to its members over the years.

  剑桥大学是世界上最古老的大学之一,也是英国最大的大学之一。它以卓越的学术成就和在广泛的科学和艺术学科中进行的高质量的研究而享誉世界。这所大学的先驱者致力于疾病的理解、新材料的创造、通讯技术的进步以及宇宙起源的研究。它培训医生、兽医、建筑师、工程师和教师。在各个层次上,剑桥大学大约有一半的学生学习艺术和人文学科,其中许多人后来成为艺术、印刷和广播媒体的杰出人物。这所大学在科学方面的成就可以用多年来授予其成员的60多个诺贝尔奖来衡量。

  Constitution of the University

  The University is a self-governing body: the legislative authority is the Regent House, which consists of the three thousand or so members of the teaching and administrative staff of the University and Colleges who have the MA (or MA status) or a higher degree. The principal administrative body of the University is the Council, which consists mainly of members of the academic staff elected by the Regent House. The General Board of the Faculties co-ordinates the educational policy of the University and the Finance Committee of the Council supervises its financial affairs.

  大学章程

  大学是一个自治机构:立法权属于摄政院,由大学及书院约三千名持有文学硕士(或文学硕士)或以上学位的教职员及行政人员组成。大学的主要行政机构是校董会,校董会主要由摄政府选出的教职员组成。学院董事会负责协调大学的教育政策,而校董会财务委员会则负责监督大学的财务事务。

  The University of Cambridge is a loose confederation of faculties, Colleges, and other bodies. The University works with a relatively small central administration, and with central governing and supervisory bodies consisting of, and mainly elected by, the current academic personnel of the Faculties and Colleges. An unusually large part of Cambridge's day-to-day administration is carried out by teaching staff on behalf of their colleagues, and the University's legislative structure is in practice unusually open to consultation and participation. The procedural rules are embodied in the University's Ordinances, which prescribe in some detail the formal administrative practices. These rules are made in most cases by the University itself, within a framework set by the Statutes, which can only be changed with the approval of The Queen in Council. The University's volume of Statutes and Ordinances, published triennially with annual supplements, is readily available throughout the University, and contains the basis of its constitution, procedures and practice. Full details of the membership of all the academic and administrative bodies described in this booklet are given in a special October issue of the University's weekly official journal Cambridge University Reporter, with subsequent changes noted in ordinary issues

  剑桥大学是一个由学院、学院和其他机构组成的松散联盟。大学的中央行政机构相对较小,中央管理和监督机构主要由各学院的现任学术人员组成,并由他们选举产生。剑桥大学的日常管理工作中有很大一部分是由教师代表他们的同事来进行的,而实际上,剑桥大学的立法结构对咨询和参与非常开放。程序规则载于大学的条例内,这些条例较为详细地规定了正式的行政惯例。在大多数情况下,这些规则是由大学自己制定的,其框架是由法规规定的,只有在女王参议会批准后才能更改。大学的章程和条例集每三年出版一次,每年增刊一次,在大学各处随时可得,其中载有大学章程、程序和惯例的基础。在这本小册子中描述的所有学术和行政机构的成员的全部细节将在剑桥大学的官方周刊《剑桥大学记者》10月号的特刊中给出,随后在普通期刊中也注意到了一些变化。

  To understand how the 'Cambridge' structure operates, it helps to keep the historical origins in mind. The University was established in about 1209 to examine and to confer Degrees. The first Colleges, each autonomous and independent with its own Governing Body and Charter, were established later, from 1284, principally to teach and house students at all levels. Today, the Colleges are mainly concerned with the teaching of their undergraduates and the academic support of both graduate and undergraduate students, and of scholars and research workers of outstanding merit. In this century the role of the University has hugely expanded through the provision of facilities, such as teaching and research laboratories, which it is practically possible only to provide centrally. The University employs Professors, Readers, Lecturers and other teaching and administrative staff who provide the formal teaching (lectures, seminars and practical classes). The Colleges supplement their teaching with supervisions, given by Fellows or others appointed by the College, and each College also provides library and other learning resources exclusively for its own members.

  要理解“剑桥”的结构是如何运作的,就必须牢记它的历史渊源。这所大学始建于1209年,主要从事学位考试和授予工作。从1284年开始,第一批独立自主的学院建立了,每个学院都有自己的管理机构和章程。今天,学院主要关心本科生的教学,关心研究生和本科生、优秀学者和研究工作者的学术支持。在本世纪,大学的作用通过提供诸如教学和研究实验室等设施而大大扩大,而实际上只有集中提供这些设施才是可能的。学校聘请教授、读者、讲师等教职工和行政管理人员进行正式教学(讲座、研讨会、实践课)。学院以导师或学院指定的其他人的监督作为教学的补充,每所学院还专门为自己的成员提供图书馆和其他学习资源。

  The University retains sole responsibility for examinations and for conferring Degrees. The Colleges, on the other hand, have responsibility for selecting, admitting and accommodating all undergraduate students, and a student cannot enter the University unless he or she also becomes a member of a College. However, the University lays down the admission qualifications for undergraduate students, and also has certain controls over the statutes of the individual colleges.

  大学只负责考试和授予学位。另一方面,学院有责任选择、录取和容纳所有的本科生,学生不能进入大学,除非他或她也成为学院的一员。然而,大学规定了本科生的入学条件,并且对各个学院的章程也有一定的控制。

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