天道留学APP 解决你所有的留学问题!

天道首页 > 英语学习 > 双语阅读

打不死的小强:蟑螂耐药性可快速增强4到6倍!

责任编辑:siyang.zhang来源:互联网时间:2019-07-08 09:55:46点击:

最新研究发现,全球最常见的蟑螂种类德国小蠊正对多种杀虫剂产生交叉耐药性。在某些情况下,研究人员不仅无法在为期半年的研究期间杀灭部分蟑螂,甚至使用了多种杀虫剂也是如此,而且他们发现,蟑螂的耐药性在一代之内提高到之前的6倍。

关键词: 英语学习双语阅读科技新闻

  Cockroaches are stepping up their defenses againstthe poisons designed to kill them.

  蟑螂对杀虫剂的防御机制正在加强。

  A new study has found that German cockroaches, themost common species of the insect in the world, aredeveloping cross-resistance to numerousinsecticides.

  最新研究发现,全球最常见的蟑螂种类德国小蠊正对多种杀虫剂产生交叉耐药性。

  Not only were researchers in some cases unable toreduce cockroach numbers during a six-month studyperiod, even when combining different insecticides, but they found the insects' resistanceincreased up to six-fold within one generation.

  在某些情况下,研究人员不仅无法在为期半年的研究期间杀灭部分蟑螂,甚至使用了多种杀虫剂也是如此,而且他们发现,蟑螂的耐药性在一代之内提高到之前的6倍。

  'This is a previously unrealized challenge in cockroaches,' said Purdue University professorMichael Scharf.

  普渡大学教授迈克尔·沙夫说:“我们之前在蟑螂身上从未遇到过的挑战。”

  'Cockroaches developing resistance to multiple classes of insecticides at once will makecontrolling these pests almost impossible with chemicals alone.'

  他说:“蟑螂同时对多种杀虫剂产生耐药性将使单纯利用化学物质控制它们变得几乎不可能。”

  The study published in the journal Scientific Reports focused on the species Blattellagermanica L, which can be found all around the world.

  这项研究发表在《科学报告》杂志上,重点研究了德国小蠊这种遍布全球的蟑螂种类。

  The team tested different insecticides from different classes, and combinations of the bunch, inmulti-unit buildings in Indiana and Illinois over a period of six months.

  研究小组在半年时间内在印第安纳州和伊利诺伊州的多单元建筑物中测试了不同种类的杀虫剂及其组合。

  Exterminators often mix insecticides of different classes to ensure they're eliminating bugs thathave developed resistance to one, the authors note.

  研究报告的作者指出,灭虫者通常会混合不同类别的杀虫剂,以确保能够杀灭对某一种杀虫剂产生耐药性的害虫。

  Roaches were captured from the sites before the lab to assess the best treatment for eachscenario.

  研究人员从实验室前的多个地点捕捉蟑螂,以评估每种情况下的最佳方案。

  'If you have the ability to test the roaches first and pick insecticide that has low resistance, that ups the odds,' Scharf said.

  沙夫说:“如果能先测试蟑螂,然后挑选耐药性弱的杀虫剂,那就增加了杀灭几率。”

  'But even then, we had trouble controlling populations.'

  “但是即便如此,我们也很难控制蟑螂的数量。”

  The team says it was able to keep the roach populations stable during the study period, butcould not make a significant dent in their numbers.

  研究小组称,在研究期间蟑螂数量能够维持稳定,但无法大幅减少。

  With the two-insecticide mixture, the pests even appeared to thrive.

  在使用了两种杀虫剂的混合物之后,蟑螂数量甚至增加了。

  One of the single-insecticide experiments suggested the population was at first vulnerableto the method, and in that case they were able to mostly wipe them out. But, in another trialwith 10 percent starting resistance, the population grew despite treatment.

  其中一项单一杀虫剂试验表明,蟑螂起初对此很敏感,在这种情况下,大多数蟑螂基本上都被杀灭了。但是,在另一项耐药性达到10%的试验中,尽管使用了杀虫剂,蟑螂数量还是增加了。

  Surviving roaches then led to more resistant offspring.

  幸存下来的蟑螂会生育出耐药性更强的后代。

  'We would see resistance increase four- or six-fold in just one generation,' Scharf said.

  沙夫说:“我们发现,耐药性在仅仅一代之内就增加了4到6倍。”

  'We didn't have a clue that something like that could happen this fast.'

  “我们此前不知道耐药性会发展得如此之快。”

  Female cockroaches can produce as many as 50 offspring during their three-monthreproductive cycle.

  雌性蟑螂可以在其三个月的繁殖周期内产下多达50个后代。

  Even a small percentage of resistance and the potential for cross-resistance could mean acockroach population just keeps coming back.

  即便是很小的耐药性比例和交叉耐药性的可能性也意味着蟑螂会不断繁衍。

  'Some of these methods are more expensive than using only insecticides, but if thoseinsecticides aren't going to control or eliminate a population, you're just throwing moneyaway,' Scharf said.

  沙夫说:“一些杀灭蟑螂方法的成本要高于仅使用杀虫剂,但是如果这些杀虫剂不能控制或杀灭蟑螂,那就是在浪费钱。”

  'Combining several methods will be the most effective way to eliminate cockroaches.'

  他说:“多种方法结合将是消灭蟑螂最有效的方法。”

  The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is an omnivorous scavenger and one of thelargest insect species that lives in close proximity to humans.

  美国蟑螂(美洲大蠊)是一种杂食性食腐动物,是与人类生活在一起的最大的昆虫之一。

  It has one of the largest genomes known to exist among insects, second only to the commonlocust.

  这种蟑螂的基因组在已知的昆虫基因组中位于最大之列,仅次于常见的蝗虫。

  In total, the species has 20,000 genes - which is the same number as a human.

  美国蟑螂一共有2万个基因,这与人类的基因数量相同。

  Some genes control its internal detoxification system, which means the cockroach doesn'tget ill if it eats toxic food.

  一些基因控制着蟑螂体内的解毒系统,这意味着如果蟑螂吃了有毒食物不会有不适反应。

  More genes help it combat infections, meaning it is resilient to living in filthy conditions.

  更多的基因帮助它们对抗感染,这意味着蟑螂能在肮脏的环境中生存。

  Cockroaches can also regrow limbs thank to its remarkable genetic sequence.

  蟑螂还能重新长出四肢,这要感谢其非凡的基因序列。

  Scientists have also found that female cockroaches are so resilient they don't need a malepartner.

  科学家还发现,雌性蟑螂的适应力很强,不需要雄性伴侣。

满分考生亲授 如何在家搞定托福110+

大家都在关注

分享到:

  • 考试系列APP上线
  • 微留学 大梦想 天道微信

请输入验证码关闭

  • GMAT考试:最有价值的考试攻略!

免责声明:①凡本站注明“本文来源:天道教育”的所有文字、图片和音视频稿件,版权均属本网所有,任何媒体、网站或个人未经本网协议授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式复制发表。已经本站协议授权的媒体、网站,在下载使用时必须注明“稿件来源:天道留学”,违者本站将依法追究责任。②本站注明稿件来源为其他媒体的文/图等稿件均为转载稿,本站转载出于非商业性的教育和科研之目的,并不意味着赞同其观点或证实其内容的真实性。如转载稿涉及版权等问题,请作者在两周内速来电或来函联系。

关于天道 天道历史 资质荣誉 特色优势 媒体报道 企业招聘 更多
培训服务 北美课程 北美课程特色 英联邦课程 英联邦课程特色 天道培训优势 更多
培训课程 SAT课程 托福课程 雅思课程 GRE课程 GMAT课程 更多
高分学员榜 SAT高分学员 托福高分学员 雅思高分学员 GRE高分学员 GMAT高分学员 更多
名师风采 五星名师 多对一教学加辅导 海归+名校 多年教学经验 内部教材独家研发 更多
");}(document);